It is important that the stability a period in custody can provide is utilised as an opportunity for intervention (Vaswani, Paul and Papadodimitraki, 2016). Therefore throughout their time in custody, the young person’s needs should be met as identified in the Child’s Plan. Support in meeting these needs should continue when the young person returns to the community or moves elsewhere within the Scottish Prison Service (SPS).
To access programmes, a young person must be referred for a generic programme assessment. This will then be presented to the Programmes Case Management Board (PCMB), a multi-disciplinary group who will determine which programme is most suitable. Available programmes vary by establishment and may include:
- Substance Related Offending Behaviour Programme
- Controlling Anger Regulating Emotions
- Constructs (problem solving)
- Youth Justice Programme
- Female Offending Behaviour Programme
On completion, the individual is presented back to the PCMB to discuss progress and any outstanding areas of need/risk to inform future case management. The PCMB can refer the young person to specialist support if this is required.
Young people can access a range of further support services that may include official bodies (e.g. Job Centre; Department of Work and Pensions; Skills Development Scotland) and a wide range of third sector organisations. Supports may include youth work, parenting, employability, life skills, counselling, and in respect of relationships, trauma, abuse, loss and bereavement.
A full curriculum is available for young people and a range of qualifications can be accessed, from vocational qualifications to higher education.
As young people on remand are in the same houses as convicted young people, the same supports and education are available to both, although eligibility may vary depending on the length of time the young person has to remain in custody.
Young people on remand do not have to work but sentenced young people do.
The work available varies by establishment but may include joinery, plumbing, painting, bricklaying, engineering, welding, and hairdressing.
Health services are provided by the local NHS Health Board. Services include:
- Primary care
- Mental health
- Emergency care
- Addictions (including Addictions & Enhanced Addiction Caseworkers)
Where necessary care plans will be established and reviewed. Where young people have complex needs, multi-disciplinary case conferences can be arranged. Young people can self-refer for services, be referred by other staff within the establishment, or by parents. Health Centre staff can also refer young people on for a range of other services, both internally and externally.
In HMP & YOI Cornton Vale, the above services are available, alongside a mother and baby unit; and where the individual is pregnant, automatic referral would be made to the community midwife, social work, Forth Valley NHS maternity services, multi-disciplinary mother and baby meetings, and a child development worker.
Prison-based social work
In addition to the social worker based in the local authority where the young person ordinarily resides, prison-based social work services are available. Further information on the roles and responsibilities of these services are detailed in the National Objectives for Social Work Services in the Criminal Justice System: Standards – Throughcare.
For all young people: review meetings should take place throughout the young person's period of detention at a frequency determined by the length of sentence and young person’s needs. The National Standards for Youth Justice Provision in Scotland (Centre for Youth & Criminal Justice, 2013) recommend reviews for young people in YOI should take place at least monthly. Reviews should by chaired by a representative from the local authority where the child ordinarily resides and include the young person, their family (where appropriate), Personal Officer and YOI staff, the Lead Professional and other relevant professionals. These reviews of the Child’s Plan should be undertaken based on GIRFEC wellbeing indicators and outcomes detailed in the plan should be recorded as per local arrangements and the child’s plan updated by the Lead Professional following this. Minutes and the updated child’s plan should be shared with the SPS.
The Positive Futures Plan will be reviewed regularly by the young person and their Personal Officer and be shared with others – including the Lead Professional – so that changes are reflected in the Child’s Plan.
Enhanced Integrated Case Management (ICM): after the initial case conference, there will be an annual case conference between 11 and 13 months and annually thereafter.
Risk Management Team (RMT): for young people who have progressed to the stage where community access may be appropriate (for example through escorted visits home, work placements and eventual unescorted home leaves) and/or have additional needs in terms of their management, this multi-disciplinary body will review their case. The RMT sits weekly in HMYOI Polmont and fortnightly in HMP & YOI Cornton Vale.
For young people subject to an Order for Lifelong Restriction (OLR):
- The Lead Authority (SPS) must report to the Risk Management Authority (RMA) annually and review the plan should circumstances change. Changes to the plan must be submitted to, and approved by the RMA.
- Should the individual require hospital treatment, in the short-term the SPS will continue to fulfil the role of Lead Authority. If treatment becomes longer-term, the hospital will take over as the Lead Authority and will be responsible for carrying out the activities described above and as detailed in sentence planning and case management.
Resources for this page
- Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003
- GIRFEC wellbeing indicators
- Integrated Case Management Practice Guidance Manual
- The Looked After Children (Scotland) Regulations 2009
- Partnership Framework Agreement
- The Prisons and Young Offenders Institutions (Scotland) Rules 2011
- Risk Management Authority
- Scottish Prison Service
- Centre for Youth & Criminal Justice (CYCJ). (2013). National Standards for Youth Justice Provision in Scotland (Appendix 1 to Youth Justice in Scotland: a guide to policy, practice and legislation). Glasgow: CYCJ.
- CYCJ. (2016). Reviews for young people aged under 18 in custody. Glasgow: CYCJ.
- Centre for Youth & Criminal Justice (2016). A Guide to Youth Justice in Scotland: Reintegration and Transitions: Youth justice practice at the interface of the Children’s Hearings System and the Criminal Justice System. Glasgow: CYCJ.
- Scottish Government. (2004). National Objectives for Social Work Services in the Criminal Justice System: Standards – Throughcare. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
- Scottish Government. (2010). National Outcomes and Standards for Social Work Services in the Criminal Justice System. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
- Scottish Government. (2011). Reintegration and Transitions – Guidance for Local Authorities, Community Planning Partnerships and Service Providers. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
- Vaswani, N., Paul, S. and Papadodimitraki, Y. (2016). Our Lives with Others: An evaluation of trauma, bereavement and loss developments at HMYOI Polmont. Glasgow: CYCJ.